‘A modular environment is an environment built out of reusable textures and models.’

Texture Atlas?

Using vertex colours – painting/tint geometry.

Use vertex materials for damage

[Theory: Efficient planning for modular environments]

Separate textures – major, minor, decals

Vertex Blending?

Floating plane with alpha map

Light maps?

PBR Workflow (Physically Based Rendering)

Video 1 – Texture Maps Explained – PBR Workflow (Physically Based Rendering).

  • First image (texture cube) features a base colour, metallic, roughness, normal, height and ambient occlusion.
  • Base Colour/Albedo/Diffuse – The literal colour of areas on a given space of your textures.
  • Cube without base colour is just white.
  • Metallic – The ability of your surface to reflect the imagery around it.
  • If material is not too reflective (brick) the metallic map will be black and if it is reflective it will be white. Can adjust values in Unreal Engine.
  • Roughness – The ability of your surface to reflect or absorb white light.
  • White = Rough Black = Smooth
  • Normals – Determines the illusion of depth and features.
  • Height – The fake depth or height of areas on your map. (Bump)
  • Parallax Illusion?
  • Ambient Occlusion – Determines which areas are inherently darkened to simulate shadows. (Not essential).

Video 2 – Creating a PBR texture for Unreal Engine 4 in GIMP

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